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Names of God

GOD = self-revealing names of GOD in the Old Testament. (Scripture references are the first place the word is used in the Bible.)

Adon = To rule; sovereign; controller. In KJV printed as Lord (capital “L” small case “ord”) Used about 31 times in the OT when referring to God.

Adonai = (Genesis 15:2). =Master; Lord; Owner. When printed as Lord (capital “L” small case “ord”) in KJV to refer to Deity, the name usually refers to Jesus (Genesis 15:2).

Adon-Adonai = Jehovah our Ruler. A vigorous name of God expressing divine dominion; reveals God as the absolute Owner and Lord.

Adoni-Jah = Jehovah is LORD

EL = (Genesis 14:18); Root = to be strong. The Strong One. Indicates the great power of God. In the singular it emphasizes the essence of the Godhead. It has been translated as “Mighty, Prominent, The First One.”

Elah = (elahh) (Ezra 4:24); oak; an oak tree; like a tree. The denunciation of a curse. Root = an oak; tree symbolizes durability; the EVERLASTING God (Ezra 5:1 rebuilding the house of God). Indicates the living and true God who identifies with His people in captivity (used 43 times in Ezra; 46 times in Daniel).

Eloah = (elowahh) (Deuteronomy 32:15). Used 54 times in Scripture (40 times in Job alone). Root = to fear; to worship; to adore. The adorable or worshipful One, (Job 19:25–26). The name for absolute Deity. The only living and true God, in all His being. The object of all testimony and worship. It is the singular of Elohim. It speaks of the totality of His being; the finality of His decisions.

Elohim = (El-lo-heem) (Genesis 1:1); Root = to swear; name indicates God, under the covenant of an oath with Himself to perform certain conditions (Hebrews 6:13). Name implies: One in covenant; Fullness of might. Refers to absolute, unqualified, unlimited energy. A plural name revealing God in the unity and trinity of all His divine personality and power.

El Elohe-Israel = (Genesis 33:18–20); God of Israel; God, the God of Israel

El Elyon = (Genesis 2); Most high God; God most high; combined idea of might. (The Possessor [oF framer] of heaven and earth.)

El Olam = (Genesis 20:13); God of eternity; KJV the everlasting God. The God without a beginning; the God who never will cease to be; the God who will never grow old; the God to whom eternity is what present time is. Describes God as He who extends beyond our greatest vision of who we think God is (no matter how great our concept of God is, He is always greater).

El Roi = (Genesis 16:13, 14 only time used); the well of Him that lives and sees. Roi = root = that sees; of sight.

El Shaddai = (el shad-di) = Almighty God; all-sufficient God; (first used in Genesis 17:1; last used in Revelation 19:15). In Him all fullness dwells, and out of His constant fullness His own receive all things.

EL sets forth God’s Almightiness, and Shaddai, His exhaustless bounty; i.e., the all-bountiful One. The psalmist reveals God’s supremacy and sufficiency with His eternalness; He that dwelleth in the secret place of El Elyon, shall abide under the shadow of El Shaddai (Psalm 91:1). “… from everlasting to everlasting, Thou art God (Psalm 90:2).

Shaddai = (Genesis 17:1) Almighty; used 48 times 31 times in Job; about 10 times in the New Testament where it speaks of the all powerful One, the absolute Sovereign. In Scripture, the term Almighty (used about 58 times) is applied only to God. Shaddai speaks of God Almighty; the mighty One of resource or sufficiency; the pourer forth of blessings (temporal and spiritual); the breasted One; the mighty One of resource of sufficiency; root = shad = a breast; Genesis 49:25 the blessings of the breasts presents God as the One who nourishes, supplies, and satisfies. God, all bountiful; God all sufficient.

Heleyon or Eleyon = most high; highest; Jehovah most high (Psalm 7:17; 47:2; 83:18; 97:9). Reveals God as the high and lofty One who inhabits eternity (Isaiah 57:15). The title has to do with the Most High as the ascended One who is in the highest place, guarding and ruling over all things and making everything work to one given end (Daniel 4:25).

Jah = (Psalm 68:4); found 50 times in Exodus, Psalms, and Isaiah. A shortened, poetic, form of Jehovah; the Independent One; the LORD most vehement; root = to be; to breathe. The name signifies, He is; present tense of the verb to be. (It foreshadows Jesus as the I AM in John.) He will be; i.e., the Eternal who always is; the Eternal One; the name of the LORD everlasting. First used in Exodus 15:2; this song of salvation shows Jah to be a present and perpetual support and security (Isaiah 26:4). The name suggests Jehovah as the present Living God the presence of God in daily life; His present activity and oversight on behalf of His own. Jah reveals God as the One intensely and personally interested in us, and who sits on the circuit of the earth observing our every action.

Jehovah = (Genesis 2:4). Self-existent; the eternal, ever-loving One; He will be; i.e., the Eternal who always is; the eternal One; the I AM THAT I AM; (He) was, is, will be, the LORD God; root = to be; to exist; being; to breathe). In Hebrew this name is written as YHVH (called a Tetragrammaton or four-lettered name). This name reveals God as the One Who is absolutely self-existent, and who, in Himself, possesses essential life and permanent existence. A name of covenant relationship; God’s signature when He entered into a covenant with man. The name is first used as Jehovah-Elohim in Genesis 2:4, denoting that Elohim, the God of relationship, now requires order and obedience. The name is first used alone in God s revelation to Moses in Exodus 6:3.

Jehovah is derived from the Hebrew verb “havah” = to be; to exist; being; to breathe. The name Jehovah brings before us the idea of being or existence and life. Jehovah is the Being who is absolutely self-existent, the One who in Himself possesses essential life, the One who has permanent existence, He who is without beginning or end (Isaiah 43:10, 11; Psalm 102:27). Jehovah is the ever existent One; the Eternal; the Everlasting One - that is; the One continually revealing Himself and His ways and purposes. In the KJV, the Father, Jehovah, is printed as LORD or GOD (all caps); i.e., the Lord GOD, Ezekiel 16:8, 30, {Adonai-Jehovah}. The only departure from this is found in Deuteronomy 28:58 in the phrase: “THE LORD THY GOD” {Jehovah-Elohim}. Middle-Ages Jewish commentator, Moses Maimonides, stated that, “All the names of God which occur in Scripture are derived from His works except one, and that is Jehovah, and this is called the plain name, because it teaches plainly and unequivocally of the substance of God. In the name Jehovah the personality of the Supreme is distinctly expressed. It is everywhere a proper name denoting the person of God and Him only.”

Jehovah-Elohay = The LORD my God. Similar to Adhon or Adhonay; a personal name meaning My LORD; likewise emphasizing divine sovereignty (Judges 6:15; 13:8). Elohay, however points to the personal pronoun as being expressive of a personal faith in the GOD of power (Zechariah 14:5). Wherever the title is used, it is in the individual, personal sense, and not a general one as in The LORD our God.

Jehovah-Elobeenu =The LORD our God; suggesting the common wealth of God’s people in Him.

Jehovah-Eloheka = The LORD your God. This title is found 20 times in Deuteronomy 16. Taking its use from Exodus (Exodus 20:2) where it is often used, this divine name denotes Jehovah s relationship to His people, and their responsibility to Him. This name is more personal than His previous name,

Jehovah-Eloheenu = The LORD our God.

Jehovah-Elohim = Reveals the majestic omnipotent God, combining the majesty and meaning of both names (Zechariah 13:9; Psalm 118:27). Together they imply man’s place of conscious intelligent relationship to his creator. Reveals man’s accountability to God. Name first used in Genesis 2:4 (LORD God, twenty times in Genesis 2 and 3) reveals the nature of (Elohim) the God of relationship and (Jehovah) the GOD of holiness and order who requires sacrifice (Genesis 8:20) and obedience (Exodus 6:3) based on relationship.

Jehovah-Gmolah = (Jeremiah 51:7, 8); The GOD of recompenses.

Jehovah-Heleyon = (Psalm 97:9, ASV; 7:17; 47:2; 83:18); reveals God as the high and lofty One that inhabits eternity (Isaiah 57:15).

Jehovah-Hoseenu = (Psalm 95:6); The Lord our maker. Refers to God’s ability to fashion something out of what already exists (Hebrews 11:10; Ephesians 2:22), not to His ability to speak and create out of nothing.

Jehovah-Jireh = (Genesis 22:14); the LORD is provision; the LORD will see and provide.

Jehovah-Makkeh = (Ezekiel 7:9); The LORD shall smite you.

Jehovah-M’Kaddesh = (M-kad-desh) = (Leviticus 20:8); the LORD is sanctification; the LORD who sanctifies; the LORD does sanctify (sanctify = to set apart); root = M’Kaddesh = sanctify; holy; hallow; consecrate; dedicate; sanctuary; Holy One.The term “holiness” from the Hebrew “kodesh” is allied to sanctify, which is translated by words such as dedicate, consecrate, hallow, and holy in the Scriptures. GOD wants us to know Him as Jehovah-M’Kaddesh, Jehovah who sets us apart unto Himself. In connection with man, Jehovah M’Kaddesh (Jehovah who sanctifies), empowers us with His presence to set us apart for His service. The Lord wants us to be a holy nation (Exodus 19:5, 6) that appreciates our high, holy, and heavenly calling (Exodus 31:13). We have no inherent holiness or righteousness apart from Him. God’s command, “Sanctify yourselves” can be fulfilled only in the imparted and imputed righteousness of Christ, for, “I am the LORD which sanctify you.”

Jehovah-Nissi (nis-see) = (Exodus 17:8–15); the LORD is a Banner; the LORD my banner; the LORD our banner; root = “Nissi” = Banner; an ensign; a standard (Isaiah 5:26; 49:22; 62:10; compare Psalm 20:5; 60:4). A sign, (Numbers 26:10); and a pole in connection with the brazen serpent (Numbers 21:9). Jesus is our victory over Amalek (the flesh) through the Cross; He is our banner leading us to victory. Dr. F. E. Marsh says: “The Lord in His death for us is our Banner in victory our Standard in life our Ensign in testimony our Sign to all that He is the Triumphant Lord.”

Jehovah-Rohi (Ro -ee) = (Psalm 23:1); the LORD is a Shepherd; the LORD my Shepherd; (root = Rohi = shepherd; feed; to lead to pasture; tend a flock.)

Jehovah-Rophe (Rophi) (Ro’-phay) = (Exodus 15:22–26); the LORD is healing (physical and spiritual); the LORD who heals you; the LORD the Physician; (root = Rophi = heals; healing; restore; repair; make whole.) Verse 26 can be “I Am Jehovah, thy Healer. Heals or healeth = to mend (as a garment is mended); to repair (as a building is constructed); and to cure (as a diseased person is restored to health) (Compare Psalm 103:3; 147:3; Jeremiah 3:22; Genesis 20:17; 2 Kings 20:5.)

Jehovah-Sabaoth = Hebrew Tsebaoth; Greek: Sab-a-oth, (Romans 9:29; James 5:4); Sabaoth = host or hosts, with special reference to warfare or service. The LORD of Hosts (1 Samuel 1:3; Jeremiah 11:20; used about 260 times in the Old Testament); LORD of all power and might (material or spiritual), LORD of heaven and earth, sole God and ruler of the world; LORD of all angels, men, demons; the absolute monarch of this universe (Daniel 4:33). The LORD of powers the LORD all possessing, all-controlling.

Jehovah-Shalom (Shal-lom) = (Judges 6:24); the LORD is peace; the LORD my peace; the LORD our peace; the LORD is or sends peace; (root = Shalom = peace; welfare; good health; whole; favor; perfect; full; prosperity; rest; make good; pay or perform in the sense of fulfilling or completing an obligation.)

Jehovah-Shammah (Sha-mah) (Ezekiel 48:35); the LORD is there; the LORD is present: (Root = Shammah = presence).

Jehovah-Tsebaoth = Same as Jehovah-Sabaoth = LORD of hosts; Hebrew: “Sabaoth” [Saw-Baw], (1 Samuel 1:3); Word literally means hosts; combines the ideas of divine maker and controller with special reference to warfare; implies divine revelation and authority; armies; a gathering together in His name.

Jehovah-Tsidkenu (tsid-kay’-noo) = (Jeremiah 23:5, 6; 33:16); the Lord is righteous; the LORD our righteousness; the LORD my righteousness; root = Tsidkenu = straight; right; righteous; just; justify. This word represents God s dealing with men under the ideas of righteousness, justification, and acquittal. 

KJV Kings James VersionKJV Kings James VersionKJV Kings James VersionKJV Kings James Version Stelman Smith and Judson Cornwall, The Exhaustive Dictionary of Bible Names (North Brunswick, NJ: Bridge-Logos, 1998), 81–89.

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